LTA-POC is a rapid test for the measurement of Lymphotoxin-α
tears. It is intended for monitoring ocular surface immune
facilitating clinical diagnosis of dry eye disease. LTA is a
biomarker for the assessment of immune homeostasis, which is an
factor in dry eye pathogenesis.
The lack of correlation between clinical signs and symptoms of
quick and accurate diagnosis difficult. Currently, Schirmer's
break-up time, keratoconjunctival staining, tear osmolarity are
used clinical tests for dry eye diagnosis. However, without
quantitative diagnostic tests that correlate well with and the
dry eye, the objective differentiation of dry eye symptoms from
diseases that present similar symptoms, such as ocular
conjunctivochalasis or infectious bacterial or viral diseases,
significant challenge to timely diagnosis and treatment.
Biomarker profiling with tear fluid indicates that immune
lost in the ocular surface in dry eye disease, with patients
dry eye have significantly lower LTA levels in their tears as
LTA and Immune Homeostasis
Regulation of ocular immune tolerance is important for the
protection of the ocular tissues from pathogen invasion and
inflammation and immune-mediated injury. Immune homeostasis is
the protection of ocular surface health, and the loss of immune
can lead to immunopathology1. Regulatory T cells
cells that play an essential role in maintaining the balance
activation and tolerance2. The quantity and activity
in maintaining the immune homeostasis of ocular
factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) is expressed highly and selectively in
the activation of TNFR2 is essential for the activity and
Tregs4. Lymphotoxin-α (LTA) is a ligand for TNFR2.
binding of LTA to
TNFR2 activates the proliferation
function of Tregs; therefore, the
levels of LTA reflect the status of immune homeostasis in the
LTA-POC measures the levels of LTA to monitor ocular immune
facilitate rapid, accurate diagnosis of dry eye.
Huang JF, Lin X, Liu ZG. Altered Lymphotoxin alpha (LTA)
fluid, measured with a POCT test, in dry eye patients.
Vis. Sci. 2018. 59(9):955
Sakaguchi S1, Yamaguchi T, Nomura T, Ono M. Regulatory T
tolerance. Cell. 2008;133(5):775-87.
Foulsham W1, Marmalidou A1, Amouzegar A1, Coco G1, Chen Y1,
Review: The function of regulatory T cells at the ocular
Wang J, Ferreira R, Lu W, Farrow S, Downes K, Jermutus L,
Al-Lamki RS, Pober JS, Bradley JR. TNFR2 ligation in human T
cells enhances IL2-induced cell proliferation through the
NF-κB pathway. Sci Rep. 2018. 8(1):12079
IgE POC is a rapid test for the measurement of Immunoglobulin E
human tears. It is intended to facilitate clinical diagnosis of
conjunctivitis. IgE is a valuable biomarker for diagnosing
conjunctivitis related to the type I hypersensitivity response.
Currently, the diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis is usually
clinical history, symptoms and signs. However, because of the
symptoms between allergic conjunctivitis and other eye diseases
eye, objective, quantitative diagnostic testing for allergic
is greatly needed to avoid inaccurate diagnosis and treatments.
IgE concentration in human tears is normally very low in the
disease. Elevated total IgE levels in the tears are seen in
IgE and Allergic Conjunctivitis
IgE mediates type I hypersensitivity response and plays a key
pathogenesis of allergic conjunctivitis. Type I hypersensitivity
characterized by the occurrence of allergic reactions
re-exposure to an allergen. The ocular hypersensitivity response
from exposure of the conjunctiva to environmental allergens that
the IgE production. Binding of allergens and cross-linking of
IgE on the
surface of sensitized mast cells and basophils results in cell
degranulation, leading to the release of inflammatory mediators
development of allergic diseases.
IgE POC measures the total IgE levels to facilitate rapid,
diagnosis of type I allergic conjunctivitis.
MMP-9 POC is a rapid test for the measurement of Matrix
(MMP-9) in human tears. It is intended to monitor inflammation
surface and facilitate diagnosis of dry eye disease. MMP-9 is a
biomarker for monitoring ocular surface inflammation, a core
mechanism in chronic dry eye, and for stratification of dry eye
Currently, Schirmer's test, tear break-up time,
tear osmolarity are the commonly used clinical tests for dry eye
however, these tests cannot identify the exact pathological
the kind of dry eye subtype. Understanding the pathogenesis and
processes of dry eye is critical in clinical practice.
The MMP-9 activity in tears and MMP-9 gene expression were
relatively low in normal subjects and elevated in the patients
MMP-9 and Inflammation
MMP-9, an inflammatory marker, is a zinc-binding proteolytic
by stressed basal corneal epithelial cells and neutrophils.
activities of MMPs play an important role in vascular
migration, and the processing of ECM proteins and adhesion
consists of a prodomain, catalytic domain, hinge region, and a
domain, and is secreted as an inactive zymogen that becomes
extracellularly. The most relevant natural activators of
unknown. MMP-9 activation may be mediated by removal of the
serine proteases or other MMPs, or it may be a direct response
stress that disrupts the cysteine switch. MMP-9 is capable of
cytokines and chemokines.
MMP-9 POC measures the levels of MMP-9 to assess ocular
facilitate rapid, accurate diagnosis of dry eye, as well as the
stratification of dry eye subtypes.